Tag Archive | Tree

Earthworms and Sugar Maple Saplings

Earthworms and Sugar Maple Saplings

Who would have thought that something so small would have such an impact on ecosystems? Lumbricus terrestris – the common earthworm – may not be as friendly as one might think. This species plays a major role in most ecosystems; in gardens and agricultural lands they are typically beneficial, but are they harming the iconic […]

Shelf fungi’s growth preference between standing dead and fallen dead trees

Shelf fungi’s growth preference between standing dead and fallen dead trees

The shelf fungus, or Polyporaceae, is a species with a fruiting body, containing pores or tubes which, as its common name suggests, is shaped like a round tablet. That being said, they come in many forms, colours and shapes (see figures 1 to 3). In fact, about 1700 species of these wood-rotting organisms were recorded in […]

Invasive Earthworms Posing Possible Threat to Yellow Birch Tree Population

Invasive Earthworms Posing Possible Threat to Yellow Birch Tree Population

The decline in tree populations around the world has become an alarming issue, as they play an important role in ecosystems, as well as in the economy. In the Saint Lawrence Lowlands, Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), a uniquely golden yellow barked tree with a wintergreen essence, is an especially interesting species. Commercially, the yellow birch […]

Pileated Woodpeckers and Their Relationship with Beech Bark Disease Infected Trees

Pileated Woodpeckers and Their Relationship with Beech Bark Disease Infected Trees

Introduction Since its introduction to North America in the late 1800’s (McLaughlin and Greifenhagen 2012), beech bark disease (BBD) has become a widespread health problem in forests across eastern North America, including the St. Lawrence Lowlands. It has devastating effects on American beech trees (Fagus grandifolia), drastically changing eastern forest compositions, as well as significantly […]

The Impact of Human Activity on Beech Bark Disease

The Impact of Human Activity on Beech Bark Disease

Organisms Involved in Beech Bark Disease Beech Bark Disease (BBD) is responsible for the affliction of 50% of the North American beech tree population (Garnas, et al., 2011). The North American beech tree, Fagus grandifolia, is a deciduous shade tolerant tree native to its namesake (Zhang et al., 2015). Unique in its genus, this tree […]

The Effects of Beech Trees on Understory Diversity  

The Effects of Beech Trees on Understory Diversity  

Undergrowth, or the herbaceous layer, is made up of low-lying vegetation that grows below large trees. The competitive interactions between the dominant tree species and the herbaceous layer shape the characteristics of the forest and guide the developmental direction of the ecosystem over time (Gilliam, 2007). The herbaceous layer was assessed in the Morgan Arboretum […]

Beechdrops at the Morgan Arboretum

Beechdrops at the Morgan Arboretum

Physical Description Beechdrops (Epifagus virginiana) are annual flowering plants which parasitize beech tree roots all over Eastern North America. They completely lack chlorophyll and have smooth, brownish stems and branches that reach a height of about 30cm (Musselman, 1982).  During our own observations, they were very easy to miss under all the autumn leaf litter, […]